It is possible, actual, and necessary for a common ontology technical platform to be developed utilizing current open source technologies. The OtterServer, an experimental technical platform, was designed and constructed specifically to provide the necessary means for sharing knowledge worldwide.
The platform was presented as a prototype at IC3K 2011, and published by Springer in “Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management” in 2013. It proves a common technical platform is possible and by applying artificial intelligence to the Peircean categories of possibility, actuality, and necessity. It proves the rigor of formal ontology based upon consistent Description Logic for sharing common knowledge.
OWL-DL and the HermiT reasoner are the platform’s “Possibility” foundation for verifying all categories for consistency. The platform includes a pattern database for storing “Actuality” facts. The database applies an approach presented in the IBM paper: “The Summary Abox: Cutting Ontologies Down to Size” [link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/11926078_25]. “Necessity” is achieved by implementing Service Component Architecture (SCA) and Business Process Execution Language.
All communications between the categories are implemented as knowledge graphs following the Service Data Objects (SDO) specification by:
- First, each SDO’s metadata is derived from the conceptual model of “Possibility” by defining a description logic class expression.
- Second, “Necessity” queries and updates “Actuality” facts using SDO.
- Third, the request / response messages of SCA components are defined by SDOs.
- Fourth, SDOs are an implementation of knowledge graphs accessible to developers for viewing and recording new knowledge.
Providing for the reuse of knowledge within the digital ecosystem, the framework supports secured dialogs between servers on the internet with SCA using the Jetty Server, Web Sockets, the RESTful API, and JSON messaging. It performs as microservices with a foundation in Description Logic.
Platform Information Flow
The connectivity of the categories is the same as in Peirce. Each is shown in the diagram below (the red arrows indicate the use of the SDO standard deriving metadata from Possibility):
Each instance of the platform is a named digital twin. The real twin is an enterprise or an individual. The platform is where their digital twin performs all of its assigned computer related tasks including analytics, resolving inconsistencies, and providing recommendations to the real twin.
Although the platform is technically complex, it is easy to understand and use when working at this high level. For example, behind the scenes, invisible to the observer, the pattern database has a structure similar to tables where the tables are defined only by the existence of facts. The tables are therefore dynamically created and deleted as individual facts change. As changes occur, the patterns are verified for consistency.
This experimental prototype proves that a common platform specification is possible, where knowledge sharing, and integration can be achieved by applying existing technology standards.